Scales: A succession of notes, normally either a whole tone or a half tone apart, Arranged in acending or decending order. The basic scales of most music today are the major and the minor scales, both consisting of seven different notes forming five whole tones (w) and two half tones (h). Forming in the arrangement w w h w w w h. The minor in the form w h w w h w w. Starting from c the tones of the major scale (C major) are: C D E F G A B C those of the minor scale (Cminor) C D Eb F G Ab Bb
Tritone: The interval of an augmented fourth (C-
Adagio: A slow tempo, between andante and largo.
Andante: Moderately slow, a movement at a moderately slow or walking pace.
Largo: Broad, very slow, slower than adagio.
Accelerando: Becoming faster.
Adagietto: A tempo slightly faster than adagio, a composition in a slow tempo.
Adagissimo: Extremely slow.
Agitato Agitated, excited.
Affettuoso: Affectionate, with warmth.
Allegro: Indicating a fast tempo.
Allargando: Slowing down and increasing volume.
Allegretto: A tempo between allgro and andante. A lively tempo.
A piacere: At pleasure, freely performed.
Larghetto: slow, somewhat faster than largo.
Grave: slow, solemn.
Moderato: A moderate tempo.
Andantino: somewhat quicker than andante.
Presto: very fast.
Prestissimo: As fast as possible.
Melody: A succession of musical tones, as opposed to harmony (tones sounded
simultaneously). Melody and harmony represent the horizontal and the
vertical elements of musical texture. Melody is a universal human
phenomenon, traceable to pre-
have been sought in language, in birdsong and other animal sounds, and in
the crying and playing of young children. The early development of melody
may have proceeded from one-
such small intervals as minor 3rds and major 2nds to pentatonics patterns (
based on a five-
Semitone: Minor Second.
Whole tone: Major Second.
Sesquitone: Minor Third.
Ditone: Major Third.
Diatessaron: Perfect Fourth.
Tritone: Augmented Fourth.
Diapente: Perfect Fifth.
Quadritone: Minor Sixth.
Sesquiquadritone: Major Sixth.
Quinquetone: Minor Seventh.
Sesquiquinquetone: Major Seventh.
Phrygian Polytetrachord: Polytetrachord composed of 12 conjunct or disjunct
phrygian tetrachords ( 1 semitone plus 2 whole tones).
Palindromic canons: Canons that read the same backward or forward.
Polyrhythmic scales: Simultaneous progressions in different rhythms.
Tertian position: In four-
the third in the melody.
Octive position: In four-
and in the bass.
Quartal chord: 12-
Polytonal polyrhythmic scales: Simultaneous progressions in different keys
and in different rhythms.
Polytonal scales: Scales in different tonalities played simultaneously.